Quantum Networking

Facilitating the secure and speedy transmission of information.

Connecting the Dots

The development of quantum networking promises multiple applications - quantum processor linking, secure communication, and connected arrays of entangled instruments - for human connection. The technology relies on the ability to send qubits across a network of quantum devices that are physically separated. Research in the field assures the scaling of computing power, secure encryption, and the most precise instrumentation to date.

Protecting the Signal

Montana Instruments has developed a line of cryogenic products to meet the needs of quantum networking researchers and industry pioneers. Challenges in the field arise from single photon emission and detection, increasing transmission distances between nodes, and maintaining quantum memories. Several technologies are forging ahead with promising results, including diamond NV centers, spin/quantum dots, trapped atoms, and trapped ions.

Diamond NV centers

Spin/quantum dots

Trapped atoms

Trapped ions

Cryogenics for quantum networks

From stand-alone laboratory experiments to expansive network builds, Montana Instruments has the products and manufacturing expertise to support demanding requirements. Leverage our cryogenics to aid in:

  • Integration of high NA optics with increased collection efficiency and vibrational stability, helping to reduce excitation powers, minimize scattering, and maximize measurement sensitivity
  • Cryogenic temperatures and thermal stability required for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) to increase detection efficiency, reduce dark noise, and improve count rate
  • Achieving cryogenic conditions required due to thermal energy that excites vibrational motion that disrupts the quantum computing operations
  • Reducing thermal radiation that can drive undesirable internal RF transitions in trapped ions or can raise a superconducting circuit above its critical temperature
  • Minimizing power fluctuations in laser sources as well as RF power source instabilities that perturb the QC system
  • Fluctuating external magnetic fields that can alter atomic transitions (Zeeman effect)

Quantum networking keys

A high vacuum, ultra-stable mechanical and thermal sample environment is required to prevent any unwanted excitation of the qubit state. Superior optical access (low working distance and high numerical aperture) for spatially resolved laser excitation and high collection efficiency fluorescent readout is also necessary.

Low vibration

Mechanical stability is key to preventing energy transfer to qubits and distortion of the quantum state. Minimal system vibrations (<5nm) provide an ultra-stable environment.

Low temperature

Cryogenic environments minimize thermal excitation of qubits. Through cryo-pumping, our cryogenics environment achieves 1x10(-7) torr and limit molecular/atomic collision.

Low working distance

A low working distance objective with a high numerical aperture (0.9 NA, for example) provides a narrow excitation spot for individual trapped ions and provides high collection efficiency. Our objective is temperature controlled to minimize drift, which results in maximum data collection time and minimal experimental setup/alignment.

Easy access to sample

Additional window ports may be used to laser ablate (generate the ions) or laser cool (prepare the quantum states). Our cryogenic systems can be configured with multiple side windows and a top window. In addition, the availability of larger sample spaces make it easy to address the sample from multiple incident angles.

Electrical access

Many electrical feedthroughs may be required to either generate the RF trapping potential or operate the superconducting circuit. Our base panels can be used to add low frequency/DC wires in addition to coaxial wires for low loss and higher frequency signal (up to approximately 20GHz). The sample space is kept uncluttered through the use of specially designed low thermal heat load cryogenic ribbon cables.

High vacuum

Molecular and atomic collisions can excite qubits out of their quantum state or completely knock an ion out of the trap, destroying the quantum crystal. Our sample chamber reaches a base pressure of better than 1x10(-7) torr at base temperature due to cryo-pumping in the first cryocooler stage. The combination of cryogenics and high vacuum provides a stable environment for weeks or months at a time.


Learn more about cryogenics for networks.
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